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CEE 120B/220B

Building Systems Integration | Fall 2015

11 December 2015

Final Check-In

CEE 220B | PRISCILLA NGUYEN

3D View 1

Since the last check-in, I worked on finalizing the mechanical system and plumbing system in my building. I was able to connect all the supply and return terminals to their respective ducts and also included exhaust systems. After finishing the mechanical system, I created a merged model in BIM 360 Glue between the mechanical and structural models and conducted a clash detection analysis.

A few issues were detected such as ducts colliding with beams and walls. I made notes of these locations to modify either the structural or mechanical model. In the structural model, I took out a couple of beams that are holding up the roof since the roof is not likely to experience heavy live loads and since my joists are already closely spaced together (at almost 2 feet). In other instances I simply moved the ductwork either in plan or in elevation, whichever was required in order to avoid clashing with the structural elements. In the end, I was able to eliminate all of the clashes between ducts and beams/columns. Here are screenshots of the settings defined for the clash detection analysis and the successful results from that analysis:

ClashDetectionSettings  FinalClashDetectionAnalysis     

Additionally, I created the plumbing system for my restrooms. I had to make some modifications in my architecture model in order to include a small gap between the men’s and women’s restrooms to allow space for the pipes to go in. I was able to fit all the piping and also created a new utility room next to the restrooms to act as a chase so the pipes can run vertically. I made sure the sanitary pipe had the required downhill slope of ¼” per foot as shown in this section view:

PlumbingMuseum

Another aspect I focused on was the sustainable house, which satisfies all the program requirements. It has highly efficient building materials (high R values) and operable windows so that house is naturally ventilated. This home also has a sloped roof (sloped towards the south) to harness as much solar power energy as possible. As can be seen by the energy analysis results, this home was able to achieve the net-zero energy goal and is actually capable of generating (due to PV potential) more electricity than it consumes (and could possibly give energy back to the grid):

SustainableHomeEnergyAnalysisResults

Unlike the sustainability museum, the sustainable house meets the LEED Daylighting requirements as shown below:

SHDaylighting

This sustainable home exhibition will be positioned to the west of the main sustainability museum. It will be at the same level as the “Level 1” of the museum. Here is a rendering of the sustainable home exhibit:

3D rendering

ArchModelSite

The final modifications I made to the sustainability museum were to make sure all of the systems lined up (made sure the columns were within the walls). Some minor changes I had to make to my structural model were deleting the shear walls since these overlapped with the walls in the architectural model (copy monitoring the walls from the architecture model did not copy the right walls since the walls in the architecture model were customized to include insulation). Here are screenshots of the analytical structural model (with walls) and the final one to be merged with the rest of the models (without walls):

 StructuralModelsWithWalls

StructuralModelNoWalls

For the mechanical system, I was able to change the diffusers in the kid zone space such that the diffusers, both supply and return, were placed on the walls rather than the ceiling (above). I decided to make the walls in my architecture model thicker to accommodate for the ducts running to that space (and hide them!). Here is a screenshot of the mechanical and plumbing systems:

mpSYSTEM3S

For the architecture model, I decided to delete the architecture floors and simply use the slabs from the structural model (so these elements don’t overlap and cause glares in BIM Glue 360). Lastly, here is a rendering of all the models merged together along with the sustainable home in the background:

3D View 2

3D View 3

In conclusion, the sustainability museum shows sustainability features in that there are low-e glass panels used, insulation in walls with high thermal mass, shading features corresponding to the direction windows/curtain walls are facing, having a portion of the building underground in order to have a more moderate temperature conditions, placing PV panels and wind turbines to harness renewable and clean energy, and using light colored roofs to reduce the heat island effect. Some sustainability features that I couldn’t model include: using fly ash in the concrete materials and using recycled steel for structural elements of that material type. If I were to this again, I would definitely change the orientation of my office wing – have the long faces oriented N-S instead of E-W to reduce solar heat gain and include skylights for my lower level (by possibly not completely submerging this level into the ground) to meet LEED Daylighting requirements.

09 December 2015

Final Journal Entry

CEE 220B/ Bountas Nikos

Here are all my files:

My Final presentation- slides: http://a360.co/1TCczLS

My Final presentation- video: http://a360.co/1Y3UaJ5

My architectural and structural model: http://a360.co/1XXTb2v

My MEP model: http://a360.co/1RbgGkk

My sustainable house model: http://a360.co/1Y3WsYI

It was my pleasure working in this class.

I hope you all have a great Christmas break!

Nikos

07 December 2015

Final Journal Entry

CEE 220B | DOMINIQUE SERRETTE

Final Journal Entry

Above is my final design for the Sustainable Lab and Exhibition Center. In the past 10 weeks I have tried to integrate design with sustainable features, structure, HVAC and plumbing to create holistic building that users can enjoy. Below I cover my journey up to my final design.

 

 

 

06 December 2015

Final Design Journal Entry: Jasper Ridge Living and Exhibition Center

CEE 220B I AFOLABI SANUSI

 Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 02 46 07PM 000 3D View 4

This is my Jasper Ridge Living and Exhibition Center. At the onset of this project, I decided that I wanted my building to be a place where people could come together to learn and experience building sustainability first hand. A performance-based design was the best way to achieve this; a building designed to serve an architectural, functional and societal purpose. To achieve this an atrium was designed at the center of the building. Functionality wise, the atrium serves as a means to provide ventilation and to carry out the night flushing of the building. The atrium also serves as a major source of lighting and as a component of the structural system of the building. Additionally the atrium gives the building an architectural spark, as it was the most prominent part of the center. The most important contribution of the atrium is that it serves as the heart of the building where events and exhibitions for all people to come together to experience and learn about sustainability. 

Here are a few renderings of my center:

Front –South

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 03 05 17 09PM 000 3D View 10 1

Back – North

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 02 45 23PM 000 3D View 9

Interior

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 02 44 22PM 000 3D View 2

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 02 44 35PM 000 3D View 3

Patio

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 02 45 10PM 000 3D View 7

Green Roof

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 02 45 53PM 000 3D View 1 1

Educational Room

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 01 37 24PM 000 3D View 17 1

Café/dining

 Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 02 44 58PM 000 3D View 5

Library

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 02 44 48PM 000 3D View 6

Small Sustainable House

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 03 05 14 52PM 000 3D View 8 1

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 02 45 42PM 000 3D View 11

Here is the final floor plan of the building:

Firtsfloor1

 

2level

A few points to touch on:

Structural System:

I lost some thickness of my North-South facing shear walls due to excessive opening in the shear wall from duct routing. To make up for this, I have included some lateral bracings in the stairwell to hold up the curtain wall and simultaneously serve as additional lateral resistance of the building.

strubrace 

HVAC System:

To meet the heating load requirement of the building, the building would undergo night flushing to let in cool air that would drive the warm air out via the atrium. The cool air is then absorbed by the thermal masses of the building i.e. the concrete walls and floors. The green roof would also serve as insulation to regulate and stabilize the building temperature by trapping in heat/cool air.

Screen Shot 2015 12 06 at 4.20.22 PMHere is a break down of the Green roofs material components:

green roof

Shading of the Atrium:

Shading the atrium becomes a little bit of an issue as it is completely made out of glass. To mediate the amount of heat and sunlight coming form the atrium, mullions where utilized in the curtain wall to create shade. Another shading technique used was to create a trellis canopy that would shade the atrium space. Vines will be grown on the trellis canopy during the summer to increase the effectiveness of the canopy. These vines would then die off during the winter to increase the sunlight and heat in the building. Also triple low-e glass was utilized in the atrium curtain wall system to regulate the rays of sunlight/heat entering the building.

Conclusion:

The aspect of the building I would develop given more time is to reflect/represent openings and windows at the top of the atrium facing the west side; this is the direction wind blows the majority of the year at the Jasper Ridge location. I would also provide more detail to the shading techniques utilized for the atrium.

This project made me realize the magnitude of elements that go into making a building; the more components present in a building, the tougher it is to fit it all in efficiently. This is even more true in complex projects like hospitals. This project has made me appreciate the tools utilized in Virtual Design and Construction as they simplify or at the very least clarify the components that make up a building. On a larger scale by reducing the complexity of the construction and design of a building, Virtual design and construction incentivizes project participants to incorporate sustainability methods/techniques as their benefits could be easily calculated or derived. 

Architectural - http://a360.co/1Q4CDjm

Structural - http://a360.co/1YTelM0

MEP - http://a360.co/1LXKPvw

06 December 2015

Design Journal Entry 8 - HVAC System, Plumbing System and Sustainable House

CEE 220B I AFOLABI SANUSI

 

Improve and complete HVAC system:

To make the HVAC system more efficient and sustainable I decided to only provide ventilation through my air handling units and utilize other efficient technology/techniques to handle cooling and heating. I utilized a radiant heating floor system to produce heating through out the building. To then cool my building, my building shall undergo night flushing where cold air would be let into my building to flush out hot air through out the night. This is achieved by leveraging my building's large thermal masses, it's concrete floors and walls, to absorb the cool air to keep the building cool through the day. The green roof also serves as insulation to maintain a constant temperature in the building by trapping in the heat/cooling of the building. 

Here is a summary table of how the cooling/heating/ventilation requirements were allocated through out the buildings (Values were retrieved from Revit's heating and cooling analysis function):

hvac Screen Shot 2015 12 06 at 11.50.24 AM

Here is the layout of my air ducts and duct system for ventilation:

hvac

Here is a layout of my radiant heating floor system:

radiant

Install Plumbing System:

The installation of my plumbing system was quite straight forward because I stacked my bathrooms un-top of one another. To make my bathrooms more sustainable and save water, I utilized gray water systems in my bathrooms. Water used from my sinks were collected and then fed to by bathrooms for flushing as opposed to using fresh water. Here is a layout of my plumbing system:

cold water Cold water, Hot water and Gray water Collection

 

sanitary Sanitary Pipes, Gray water supply

This is a picture of both the plumbing and HVAC system co-ordinated together in the building:

everything

Install Small Sustainable House:

I tried to mirror the use of and atrium from my big building into my smaller oner. I also tried to introduce elements of a green roof into the small building by placing a small garden somewhat imbedded in the building. Here is the layout of the building:

small house

 

Architectural Model.rvt 2015 Dec 06 11 50 32AM 000 3D View 11

05 December 2015

Design Journal Entry 10 | Lessons Learned

CEE 220B | Antonio Mena

Along this last journal entry, I will aim to outline the major steps, accomplishments and challenges during the journey of taking the class CEE 220B, and will end up by sharing with you my major take-aways and lessons learned. Please notice that all of the models developed during this class, as well as an integrated one, can be found both in our Stanford folder of A360 and BIM 360 Glue.

My version of the Sustainable Living Lab and Exhibition Center ended up being an 18,364 sf facility of two operating levels; one public and one private. It’s a completely below grade structure, a condition that leverages the earth’s mass to keep a steady temperature throughout the year, avoiding peaks and valleys in the building’s cooling and/or heating requirements. It features a major green roof/public garden that integrates the building with the surrounding nature, at the center of which a round-shape central atrium enters into the building carrying daylight and fresh air. It is also completely designed for flexibility, an important (and simple) sustainable feature that makes the building resilient to sustain future needs the building occupants might have. Please take a look at my building’s floor plans.

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Of course, non of this came without major sources of inspiration, help and guidance; both from existing projects throughout the world, fellow classmates and our Professor Glenn Katz. If you may, please take a look at my previous design journals to fund some pictures, sketches and massing models that helped me out with the design.

According to Revit daylight analysis tool, the building is LEED v4 –EQ c7 Option 2 compliant, this was achieved by testing different orientation and cladding settings to optimize the amount of daylight entering the building. An energy model was also done for the design, in which relevant material properties were carefully defined, including the concrete diaphragm walls, insulated roofs, double-pane LowE glazing, as well as the underground conditions.

The structure of the building is comprised of mixed steel and concrete elements, which were afterwards tested using robot Structural Analysis, where some element dimensions were optimized by weight considering the stresses and forces they were subject to. The MEP scope for this project consists of the HVAC and plumbing system. For the HVAC system, spaces and zones within the building were defined with their corresponding use type and settings in order to get Revit HVAC calculations. The zone set-points were based on AHSRAE standard 62-2001: ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.

The curtain walls ended up being the signature system of my project. Having a particular interest in the system, I wanted to go the extra mile in the design and modeling of the curtain walls. These systems often ought to be compliant with structural, architectural, waterproofing, wind resistance, among others, which makes it a very interesting part of the design to me. The building’s atrium curtain wall was definitely the system that challenged my patience the most! It was built using multiple surfaces (which were based on model lines) for different sections of the entire curtain wall. Additionally, I tried keeping in mind the constructability of these systems in a real-world scenario (In fact, of all building systems). I kept all glazing width at or below 4 feet and height at or below 8 feet.

So what’s new in this final entry? Well, as I went through during my final presentation, I worked on a new model which contained the natural terrain and topography of the site. Testing out different building locations (not orientations) I looked for one in which the terrain fitted adequately with the perimeter of the building. After that, minor adjustments were made in the building’s shoring and curtain walls to accurately represent buildable conditions.

                  10 2  10 3

Secondly, I worked on the sustainable house assignment we also went through in class. My main inspiration for the house architecture was the main building entrance patio. In fact, the shape of the house obeys to the shape of this entrance patio. Considering privacy and orientation conditions, I located the house at a certain point in the building’s periphery. The model of the sustainable house may also be found at A360 and BIM 360 Glue. Additionally, I worked on the final details of the building’s exterior and emergency exit.

 

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Finally, I worked with cloud rendering services to make a set of realistic pictures with the features of the building that I liked the most. Please take a look at them.

To wrap this all up, and as my final reflections at the end of this journey, I would like to share with you three take-aways and lessons learned from this project:

  • It’s all about the insight: Analysis done in Revit may or may not help us with accurate numbers or results, however, they definitely provide the user with a frame of reference with which to evaluate how do certain metrics behave give different building characteristics.
  • Don’t let the tools get in the way of ideas: No software is perfect, and no software could have all the functions to practically model the great variety of complex elements involved in building design. Don’t be afraid to model certain elements with the help of schematic masses or design intent; it will make the process practical.
  • Sustainability is not a one-way road: There are many ways to achieve sustainability. My peers came up with myriad design ideas and sustainable features. Of course, one building cannot have everything, so it’s ok to let some things go so you can maximize the value of the strategies you keep in your design.

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03 December 2015

Final Design Journal Entry

CEE 220B | Andrew Sonta

Final Design Journal Entry

For this final design journal entry, I will present the design of my sustainable design center as it is today, talk about work that would still need to be done to take the modeling to a more complete level, and discuss areas of challenge that I faced in my project.  If I had to describe the building in one sentence, I would say that my goal was to utilize architectural detailing and strategic program placement to create a space that makes sense, and that is able to showcase sustainability strategies in an integrated way.

The following images show renderings, plans, and a section of my integrated model, to give a sense of the design of the building.

sonta-final-presentation_Page_05.jpg

sonta-final-presentation_Page_09.jpg

sonta-final-presentation_Page_10.jpg

sonta-final-presentation_Page_11.jpg

sonta-final-presentation_Page_12.jpg

 

02 December 2015

Check In 8

CEE220B | Priscilla Nguyen

For this second to last check-in, I would like to focus on the finalized mechanical system and plumbing system in my building. I was able to connect all the supply and return terminals to their respective ducts and also included exhaust systems. After finishing the mechanical system, I created a merged model in BIM 360 Glue between the mechanical and structural models and conducted a clash detection analysis.

A few issues were detected such as ducts colliding with beams and walls. I made notes of these locations to modify either the structural or mechanical model. In the structural model, I took out a couple of beams that are holding up the roof since the roof is not likely to experience heavy live loads and since my joists are already closely spaced together (at almost 2 feet). In other instances I simply moved the ductwork either in plan or in elevation, whichever was required in order to avoid clashing with the structural elements.

30 November 2015

Design Journal Entry 9 | Plumbing Systems

CEE 220B | Antonio Mena

Continuing with last week design activities, I proceeded to model in Revit the plumbing system of the project. This part of the model was much more straightforward than the previous systems, possibly because the scope of work was reduced to 2 pairs of bathrooms, each one stacked above another. This feature actually made the modeling activities much simpler.

The plumbing system was composed of the three typical components found on a project; (1) domestic cold water, (2) domestic hot water, and (3) sanitary. I started out by placing plumbing fixtures in my mechanical model (which is the same model in which I included my HVAC ducts). The main reason I chose to put these elements in the same model responded to the fact that I wanted to avoid possible clashes between these two systems. So following a similar work process I did with the HVAC ducts vs the structural elements, I modeled my plumbing piping making sure that the elements did not interfere with ducts (neither with structure!).

The plumbing fixtures I placed on my model were water closets, urinals and sinks. Each of these loaded in Revit from the mechanical families, so they already had the appropriate connectors required for each element. I continued by placing the main branches of the sanitary systems. Since this piping had the largest diameter, I wanted to make sure that I was going to have space left to put the other two remaining components (hot and cold water).

After my main sanitary piping branch was modeled, I proceeded to connect each of the water closets, urinals and sinks into the main branches with the “connect into” Revit tool we learned to use in class. I finished the sanitary system by connecting the three main branches of sanitary piping (from the three wc/urinal stalls in the project) and modeled a single piping element that went further down the main floor level. Since the modeling of sanitary equipment and sewage connection was scoped out of this project, I left the sanitary piping line at that point.

The domestic hot and cold water piping came after. The logic I followed to model these elements was similar to the previously outlined. I started out by drawing the main branches of each system and afterwards used the “connect into” tool. The piping in my building goes through the drywalls, and the ceiling. Fortunately, these elements had enough space to host the piping. Similarly to the sanitary pipes, the three main branches of water piping were connected and a single pipe element (for each component) went all the way to the ground floor level, where it would be connected to the public water take. Please find some pictures of my finished plumbing system below.

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29 November 2015

Design Journal Entry 8 | HVAC Systems and Clash Detection

CEE 220B | Antonio Mena

Hello! As you may have read in my previous design journal entry, my HVAC model was starting to develop. I continued by grouping the created spaces into zones. The logic I followed to do this task was to think about the spaces that were probably going to be controlled with a single thermostat, and/or groups of spaces with same cooling/air requirements. After I finished grouping my spaces into zones, I proceeded by defining two important set points in the HVAC calculations; the outdoor air per person and the outdoor air rate. I defined these set points according to ASHRAE standard “Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality.

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After following the steps we oversaw during class, making sure each space had the appropriate “space type” assigned, and each zone had the desired air information, I clicked the calculation button. Please refer to the images below to see parts of the result sheet.

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Using the calculation sheet from Revit, I looked for the “peak cooling/heating/ventilation” airflows (in cfm, whichever was larger) for each zone and estimated the amount of supply diffusers and returns required in each space. I started out by placing the main HVAC branch in three areas; (1) circular area in level one, (2) circular area in level two, and (3) main exhibit area. After placing the HVAC main branch, I proceeded to connect the diffusers (with the right amount of CFM per piece). Afterwards, I used Revit system inspector tool to make sure the software was picking up the function of the system how it was intended to be. Finally, I used the automatic duct sizing option in Revit to optimize the sizes of the ducts in all systems; worked like a charm.

8 88 9

For the spaces around the building’s main atrium, I came up with a solution to conceal such elements that would make the ceilings look much cleaner. The ventilation grills will actually be placed on the side of the ceiling bulkhead. Please refer to the images below to better understand this detail.

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On the other hand, the HVAC system in the main exhibit area will be kept visible to the users of the building. I sort of wanted this system to be visible in this part of the building because it gives it an “industrial look” and whose function can be easily included in future tours to the museum visitors, keeping the “sustainable living lab factor” at play. I finished my model by connecting everything into an air handling unit.

After finishing my HVAC model, I glued it into BIM 360 glue and did an integrated model including the architecture, structure and HVAC. Now this didn’t come with major challenges. Among many, turns out my HVAC model was tilted 90 degrees with respect with the other two models, but with a little bit of work I figure a work around it. Please find some pictures below.

Last, but no least I did clash detection in BIM 360 glue. I’m so happy and proud to say that the software only found 17 clashes in the Structure vs HVAC test I did, and all of them are not even real clashes (for instance I forgot to shaft open the slabs in the MEP shaft and the software detects a clash here). To give me some credit, I doubled check the heights of the structural elements and the ceiling while I was modeling HVAC ducts and made sure that they didn’t clash with anything. 

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24 November 2015

Check In #7

CEE 220B | PRISCILLA NGUYEN

The first thing I did was create spaces and named these spaces with their appropriate names (similar to the names in the architecture model). I also made sure to check the occupiable box if the space needs conditioning and defined the type of space so that each space has the appropriate and specific properties associated with that space (for example the education rooms are of a type classroom and not museum). Afterwards, I grouped the spaces by type into zones; so in total I have 5 zones: the offices restrooms, an education rooms on the 1st floor, the café/kitchen/gift shop, the private office and open office on the 1st floor with the education room and restrooms on the lower level, the exhibits on the lower level, and the lobby and exhibit space on the 1st floor.

CFMcalcs

 

supplyDiffusers

Then I chose a VAV Dual Duct (only air will be used for heating and cooling) HVAC system and perhaps a radiant system in the slabs as my system in the building. I used the thermal properties in my architecture model (R values). I determined the amount of terminals (ventilation requirements) I will need for each space by running a heating and cooling loads calculation on Revit. The controlling amount of CFM for each space was obtained from getting the maximum between the heating and cooling CFM for each space. In most cases I maximized the CFM amount (usually 500 CFM) of air that the terminal can move through the spaces; if the CFM required was less than 500 CFM I lowered the amount on the property type box for those specific terminals.

At first, I was getting relatively large loads due to the fact that I did not separate my spaces enough; I was grouping my lobby and the first floor hallway and making that space a corridor/transition space type and the mechanical model was placing large cooling loads (from human heat). After separating the spaces and making the types more specific to each room the magnitude of loads decreased.

After placing my supply terminals in my mechanical model, I started connecting the ductwork and made the decision to place 3 air handling units (AHUs) on the roof and two AHUs just outside of the mechanical rooms. The outdoor AHUs will be hidden and out of the view of the museum visitors.

glueStrucMech

I ran a preliminary clash detection analysis between the structural model and mechanical model with only the supply mechanical system. Some of the clash detections were insightful in that there are beams and ducts in the same location – so I will move the structure and floor for the first floor up (and the architecture accordingly). Other clash detections were puzzling – there is a floor object in my mechanical model that may or may not be part of the linked architecture model. Interestingly, when I hide the linked model in my mechanical model that floor is still visible and it is also impossible to grab and delete. Other clashes that exist are just ducts going through slabs/shear walls – I am assuming to either ignore these clashes or cut out those areas from the structural elements. 

23 November 2015

Design journal 4

Preliminary Design

Spaces have been divided as per their need for air movement:

1) Level 1: Exhibition space and eating area: Passive Cooling

2) Level 2: Office Spaces, Meeting rooms & Break Room: Cieling Fans provide air movement

23 November 2015

Design Journal 3

Check-In 3: Building Envelope

  1. Lighting:  Daylighting to all spaces and use of low energy use lighting would be used. The features that would be incorporated are as follows:
    1. Light Shelves in order to push natural light as far deep into the building as possible
    2. The building would have daylight sensors and occupancy sensors
    3. Transparent or translucent interior space dividers
    4. Take advantage of connected ( using information technology) LED technology wherever possible which provides data to the building manager regarding lighting needs and also makes it easier for maintenance.
    5. All natural daylight that is brought in would be bounced in through a couple of surfaces to ensure that there is diffused high quality daylight that enters the building
    6. Task lighting would be incorporated wherever possible to reduce ambient installed lighting
      1. Offices would be <0.3 W/sf ambient ( Task lighting can be used for additional lighting needs
      2. Overall lighting density would be ~0.5 W/sf
  1. Glazing: All windows would have high performance glass with the following characteristics:
    1. High Light to Solar Gain Ratio:  It is the ratio of Visible light transmittance to solar heat gain. A higher value indicates better energy efficiency as it minimizes artificial lighting and cooling loads. An example of such glass is the 1” VUE1-50 Viracon Glass with a LSG of 1.67. Any other glass with similar or higher characteristics may be used
    2. Low-e Coating: The exterior surface of glazing would be coated with a low-e coating in order to prevent heat from entering the space. The reason for placing the coating on the outside is to minimize the heat loads since there are is not mechanical cooling system. This may increase the heating requirement during the winter. It is a trade-off and a decision which has been made keeping in mind that it is critical to prevent heat from entering the building during the summer
    3. Space between the two layers of the glass would be filled with Argon in order to maximize the insulating properties of Windows
    4. All window framing would be made of Vinyl and no metallic
  2. 3)HVAC systems:
    1. Cooling: There would be no need for mechanical cooling in the building. Ceiling fans (52” or 60” based on the size of the room) would be installed in the seminar rooms, meeting rooms and office spaces in order to ensure that air movement in the space resulting in thermal comfort. Design of ceiling fans would be done ( based on standards set by American Lighting association) as follows:
Up to 75 ft2 29 – 36"
76 – 144 ft2 36 – 42"
144 – 225 ft2 44"
225 – 400 ft2 50 – 54"

Additionally I will ensure that there is a center to center spacing of 10’-20’to optimize performance and ensure that the space doesn’t seem to “windy”.

  1. Thermal Mass: The temperature swings between day and night that the region experiences would be leveraged to cool down a concrete slab to 65OF such that it can act as a heat sink as the day progresses. 8” concrete slab that is considered for the first floor, to provide adequate thermal mass for keeping the building comfortable. A 4” slab did not have adequate mass to store the “coolth” for keeping the entire building inhabitable.
  2. Heating: A radiant system would be used for heating the building. For the purpose of the heating system we would use the following:
    1. Air Source Heat Pump will be used
    2. Inlet Temperature to the heat pump will be 95oF & supply temperature of water from the air source heat pump would be 1100F
    3. PVC radiant manifold will be selected
    4. Friction losses in the distribution system need to be minimized
    5. In-slab thermostats and occupancy sensors would determine operation of the radiant heating system
  1. Ventilation:  Ventilation has been separated from space conditioning in order to maximize energy efficiency. Friction in the distribution would be minimized
    1. Ventilation provided in the building would be 30% higher (LEED IAQ requirement) than the air required calculated based on ASHRAE 62.1 (minimum ventilation rates).
    2. Heat Recovery Ventilators with air side economizer would be used in in order to minimize energy requirement of the building
    3. Distribution of fresh air by the HRV’s would be carried out using ducts. Ducts would be designed & sized to have a minimal pressure drop ( 0.05” wg/100feet)
    4. All HRVs would be connected to occupancy sensors
    5. Diffusers:
      1. All Supply air diffusers would be sized based on a face velocity of 300 feet per minute
      2. All return diffusers would be sized based on 400 feet per minute of face velocity
  1. Exhaust Fans:
    1. Bathrooms: All bathrooms would be provided with exhaust fans at 10 ACH
    2. Storage space would be exhausted at 4 ACH.
    3. All exhaust fans would be connected to occupancy sensors

23 November 2015

Clash detection

CEE 220B/ Bountas Nikos

Clash detection

I performed a clash detection both in Revit and in Glue.

My first attempt in Revit gave 110 clashes (image 1)!! Running it through Glue, I realized that some ducts were overlapping with beams for as much as 5 inches (image 2).
I tried to correct these clashes on an one on one basis, but I realized that there was not enough room for both the structural and MEP elements in the ceiling, as the floor to floor height was 15 ft and floor to ceiling 12 ft. When I sized the ducts, some of them became very high and could not fit. As a result, I decided to drop the ceiling by 6” to ensure that there is plenty of room for all elements (my final floor to ceiling height is 11’ 6”). That reduced the number of clashes (image 3).

Images 4- 8 show examples of clashes that needed to be addressed.

I also realized that when the ducts were not close to the air terminals, the use of long flex ducts was causing problems, because they were going above the normal MEP elevation (image 9).

Finally, I solved all the issues, resulting in a total number of 0 interferences (images 10, 11)!

22 November 2015

Design Journal Entry 7 + 8: Mechanical, Plumbing, & Sustainable House

CEE 220B | Andrew Sonta

Design Journal Entry 7 + 8: Mechanical, Plumbing, & Sustainable House

These past two weeks, I have focused on developing my mechanical model.  I linked both my structural and architectural models to my mechanical models so that as I model my HVAC and plumbing designs, I can check for collisions with structural elements real time.

The first step I took in my mechanical model was creating spaces and zones.  I created spaces in each of the rooms I defined in my architectural model, and compiled those spaces into zones where appropriate.  I have six zones: exhibition, central lobby space, hallways, seminar rooms, restrooms, and office.  The way I thought about constructing the zones was trying to figure out how many thermostats I should have in my building.  I calculated my heating, cooling, and ventilation loads using the building properties I defined in my architectural model.  The first page of the report is shown here along with the spaces and zone schedules.

report

space schedule

zone schedule

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