CEE 120B/220B

Building Systems Integration | Spring 2016

16 June 2016

Final Design Check In

CEE 220B I Nirupama Kotcharlakota

Final Design Check In

This final week I wrapped up the design for my Sustainable Living Lab and Exhibition Center. The building is situated on a site north of dish on Stanford Campus. The design intent of the building was to 

•Offer Spectacular Views of campus to the north and east sides

Nestledin the hill

Minimizeheat gain from west façade

The vision for the design was to 

Building as an exhibit

Take advantage of terrain

Use the hill to shield from the sun

The design concpet was to guide users as they descend into more interesting spaces such as exhibition spaces below the entry level. the design was envisaged as jenga blocks placed in multiple directions pivoted around one major core. The public entry top level consists of cafeteria, gift shp and reception lobby. The semi-public Middle level consists of exhibition spaces and the private lower level consists of classrooms, seminar rooms and office spaces. My initial sketches of the building were preserved in the essence of the form till the very end. 

The total area of the building is around 23000 Sq.ft. The space program as shown below has very large exhibition spaces.

The entry level floor plan as shown below has open air seating for the cafeteria on the green roof. The goft shop also opens into the terrace. The large lobby space looks into a staircase surrounded by green walls and a glass elevator.

The middle level plan as shown below consists mainly of exhibitions spaces. Separate spaces were provided for ttemporary and permanent exhibits. These large exhibition spaces contain both light and dark spaces to allow for a variety of displays. 


The lower most level plan as shown below has office spaces and seminar rooms. In order for the architectural language of this buiding to be consistent with stanford, several lounge spaces and collaboration spaces have been provided that enable a healthy dialogue of sustainability. 

Several sustainable features have been incorporated into this building. PV panels have been placed on the roof top. Green walls and skylights have been provided. A green roof has been incorporated into the design. 

In order to enhance the thermal properties of the exterioe and interior walls of the building, a 2x6 with rigid insulation and soft lumber finish has been used for exterior walls with an R value of 51.9. Interior walls which are 5.5 inches thick have an R value of 14.97. The two cross sectiosn are shown below respectively.

An energy analysis of the building reveled that it has an EUI of 90kBtu/Sqft/yr. This although is a little on the higher side can be further optimized. 

Windows cause the maximum heating load as shown below. The windows currently in place are triple glazed fully optimized windows. 

The maximum cooling load as shown below is caused by occupants. The envelope performance is good, as it does not cause the maximum cooling load on the building. 

The lighting analysis floor plan of the middle level can be seen below. It cental portion is intentionally left darker to allow for displays and video exhibits. The cantilevered exhibition spaces are well lit. The skylight at the stair core brings in light to that region. 

Concrete has been used for the structure to allow for maximum flexibility. The member sizes are as follows:

Columns        12” x 18”


Slabs             12” thick
Beams          12” x 24”
Shear Walls  12” 
Maximum unsupported cantilevers have been limited to 10 ft. The beam supporting cantilver has been verified for stability using Robot analysis. 
The plumbing design of the building wsa very straightforward sicne the restrooms are stacked one above the other. Each level consists of 2 female and 2 male WCs and 2 ADA restrooms. The pipe sizes are as follows:
Sanitary   4

Domestic Cold Water

Domestic Hot Water
The next steps include optimizing energy performance and finalizinng HVAC design.



09 June 2016

Design Journal Entry 7 | Final design and Takeaways

220B | Amanda Piao

Design Journal Entry 7 | Final design and Takeaways

Screen Shot 2016 06 09 at 8.01.29 PM

This is my completed BIM project for 220B, YEAH~~            My building complex contains a sustainable academic center, botanical garden and an underpass skyline. It has total area of 25000 square feet. As compared with Entry 1, I revised the architectural design by overlapping two arc-shape mass together to be integrated into one building, which keep the building system shape in consistency. In the underpass, I put curtain roof in the middle to connect two buildings together. There are café, shopping area, restaurants in the underground part, which save more space on the ground. The on-ground site will have more space for parking, performance venues, and other entertaining places. 

Screen Shot 2016 06 09 at 6.06.09 PM copy

Screen Shot 2016 06 09 at 7.56.12 PM

To meet sustainable requirements, I put green roof and solar panels in terms of saving energy. Meanwhile, curtain wall systems enable more daylight and heating into the building system, since the botanical garden has more plants. I also did an energy model for the design, including green roof, thermal system, and underground underpass. 

Archi Amanda 220B.rvt 2016 Jun 09 10 02 44PM 000 3D View 6

Amanda 220B.rvt 2016 Jun 09 07 53 37PM 000 3D View 3

Amanda 220B.rvt 2016 Jun 09 07 53 51PM 000 3D View 2

Amanda 220B.rvt 2016 Jun 09 08 39 12PM 000 3D View 5 copy

For this design, I’d like to share my takeaways:

  • Inspiration: get inspirations by different functional buildings. To combine buildings in different functions make it more challenging. Revit has many functions to apply for different building characteristics.
  • Sustainability: so many ideas come from the strategy of making building sustainable. In Revit, you can keep both esthetics and sustainability together for architectural, structural and MEP design.
  • Analysis: energy model analysis and structural analysis are very useful. You can try to adjust initial design by changing the different elements to reach better parameters. During the process, this make all schematic design into practical process, in terms of considering real building effects.

Here is A360 link:

09 June 2016

Design Journal Entry 6 | Plumbing systems

220B | Amanda Piao

The plumbing system in my building complex contained three main parts: domestic cold water, domestic hot water, sanitary. There were four restrooms in the left wing of the building. The plumbing fixtures in my building were urinals and sinks, which were loaded from mechanical family. I started laying out three different pipelines along the wall. To leave more space for pipelines, I revised the architectural walls into two pieces. As shown in figure 1, the branch pipelines were connected to the main sanitary line in each floor, and lastly I used pipe inspector to check the usability of every system.   

Screen Shot 2016 06 09 at 9.30.37 AM

Screen Shot 2016 06 09 at 9.29.08 AMScreen Shot 2016 06 09 at 9.24.55 AM

In terms of sprinkler system, I put it in first and second on-ground floors in the main building. The strategy is to cover all the working spaces in the building as a fire safety system. The general layout of sprinkler system is auto- routed by Revit, I change the offset of pipelines to avoid conflicts with HVAC system. 

Screen Shot 2016 06 09 at 9.41.17 AM


09 June 2016

Design Journal Entry 5 | HVAC systems

220B | Amanda Piao

Design Journal Entry 5 | HVAC systems

The logic of designing HVAC systems is to meet the cooling and heating requirements and provide thermostat for the whole building complex system. I divided the main building, which is the sustainable academic center, by 8 zones based on the space functions. 

Screen Shot 2016 06 08 at 10.30.01 PM

Screen Shot 2016 06 08 at 10.30.57 PM

Screen Shot 2016 06 08 at 10.31.16 PM

Due to the calculation sheet generated from the report, I got the peak cooling ventilations for each zone and estimated the general number of air ventilations for each room. I put air terminals in the height of 12’’, to give more space for later radiation system and sprinkler systems. Based on the shape of the main building, I put two outdoor AHU on the roof. The strategy here is to provide each zone similar amount of air ventilations and maintain the same air temperature and quality for the building. 

Screen Shot 2016 06 08 at 7.53.34 PM

Screen Shot 2016 06 08 at 7.56.05 PM

In terms of heating system, I put radiant floor heating systems for the first and second floor of main building, because it has more offices and exhibition rooms. Also the heat from radiant system can benefit the green roof by providing heat at night.  

Screen Shot 2016 06 08 at 10.25.44 PM

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07 June 2016

Family Focused Dense Development | Final Entry


Family Focused Dense Development | Final Entry

This will be the final posting for the Family Focused Dense Development Condominum Project in Mountain View, CA.  Over the last week I have developed electrical and furniture designs for the Great room in the first unit.  This will be used as the show unit and the design will be duplicated in the other units.  

I also coordinated all the design disciplines in BIM 360 Glue and produced the merged rendering of the great room shown above.  I am pleased with the rendering and especially like the exposed timber look.  

I also ran clash detection in Glue and found 1488 clashes.  This is a significant number of clashes that will need to be resolved prior to construction.  

For the electrical design I have added ample outlets in the great room along with pendant flourescent light fixtures.  All lights are wired to switches at each door to allow easy control.  In the kitchen I have added standard appliances including refrigerator, dishwasher, double basin sink, and oven range.  The great room is spacious even when fully furnished and will lend a nice open feel to the condominiums.  

Here is the location of the merged BIM 360 Glue:

Stan_bsi_glue > Spr 2016- CEE 220B - Hansen > Hansen_Merged Project

Here are the final models on A360:

06 June 2016

Jasper Ridge Models

220B | Lama Bitar

Architectural model:

Structural model:

Posted in

CEE 120B/220B

06 June 2016

Youth Sustainability and After School Program Center - Check in 5 - Mechanical Systems (HVAC and Plumbing)

CEE 120B | Lucas Del Toro

Youth Sustainability and After School Program Center - Check in 5 - Mechanical Systems (HVAC and Plumbing)

Since my last post I have focused on placing mechanical systems in the building. This has proved a much more tedious, lengthy task than I originally predicted. Sizing ductwork and plumbing is difficult because both must fit within the confines of hidden parts of the building. My strategy with the main building ductwork began with sizing the ducts to meet HVAC loads. Minimum standards for air change rates and ventilation rates for each room (based on type, size, and occupancy) were looked up in HVAC tables (such as the ASHRAE standards) and then recorded in an HVAC schedule in Revit. This schedule was then referenced in order to local the correct amount of air supply and return terminals for each room, assuming that each air handler transfers air at a rate of 500 CFM. After air terminals were laid out, then came the challenge of arranging the ductwork to connect them. Laying out and connecting both levels of supply ductwork was especially challenging because I left myself with a slightly too narrow, multi-story mechanical chamber. In the interest of time, I have only completed the supply ductwork, but will try to complete the return portion soon. I also have yet to place an air handler; I plan it to rest on top of the roof on the second floor, where it will for the most part be out of view.

The theater’s HVAC was much easier to model because it consists of a simple radiant heating and cooling system along the floor. I opted for a radiant system for this portion of the building because radiant heating and cooling is generally most efficient and makes sense for buildings composed of one or two large rooms, as opposed to many separated rooms and floors. Unfortunately I could not figure out how to set the piping at a gradual angle to follow the sloped seating in the theater. As a result, the pipes currently run horizontally along the base “0” floor in the theater. A separate set of pipes for radiant heating and cooling blanket the floor of the theater lobby as well.

As far as plumbing, I have completed the first floor layout for the main office building. The second floor of the main building has a restroom that has yet to be outfitted with plumbing, though I plan to connect both of these systems. I would have preferred to explore the inclusion of a greywater system, but could not, again in the interest of time. I realized that I completely forgot to include restrooms in the theater, and I plan to fix in the future.

06 June 2016

Peter Fritsche: African Chelonian Institute - Design Check-In FINAL

CEE 220B | Peter Fritsche

Peter Fritsche: African Chelonian Institute - Design Check-In FINAL

For my final design journal entry, I’d like to give an overview of what went well, and what could have gone better.  In a general sense, the thing that could have most "gone better," is that I could have had more time to design each of the systems.  By the time I was able to wrap my head around a system, and start to analyze it to start refining my initial attempt into something more effective and efficient, it was time to move on to the next system.   Such is the nature of a project like this.  It will never be perfect, and can always be worked on further and improved.

On the whole, I'm satisfied how it turned out.  It began as an idea for a facility to help ACI meet their mission:

To promote the long-term conservation of turtle, tortoise and terrapin populations across the African continent through research, education, and grassroots collaboration.”

And I think I did a decent job adhering to those goals.  At the highest level, I divide the space into two areas, the rear, private space, and the front, public space.  The “research” will take place in the private space, the “collaboration”and “education” will largely take place in the public space.  There is also hybrid space that straddles the two: a working lab that can be viewed from the public space on the first floor, and two classrooms on the second floor that overlook the public space. 

Since time in the class was limited, I decided to spend most of my time and energy on the public space.  This was for many reasons, including…

-       It accounts for most of the space of the total structure

-       It’s wide-open, cavernous spaces present interesting challenges for each of the building systems

-       It’s more unique and interesting than the relatively straight-forward office space in the private area.

For my final presentation, I also focused on the public space:


Presentation Slides:

Specific Things I Liked:

Atrium-  I really like the atrium for many reasons.  It’s instrumental for the natural ventilation plans, as a place for hot air to collect, and be flushed out.  It allows for plantings of significant size to be incorporated in the café (although I didn’t find a huge single tree in the Revit library that could serve as my Baobab tree stand-in).  Use of fritted glass on the glazed roof stopped a fair amount of the solar heat gain.  I think my design could have been strengthened with more skylights.  This is especially true in the front portion of the public space (with the dry enclosures) where the roof isn’t so high as to obviate the usefulness.

Natural Ventilation with Atrium

Mechanical ventilation path in public space

Thermal Mass to Damp Temperature Swings-  I designed the walls to maximize the thermal mass within the thermal envelope.

The approximate totals for thermal mass in the public space are…

Slab: 540,000 Btu/◦F

 Walls: 80,000 Btu/◦F

Balcony: 5,000 Btu/◦F

Water in Tanks: 1,000 Btu/◦F

For a total of approximately 625,000 Btu/◦F.  The peak cooling load in the public space is 617,000 Btu/hr and occurs in September at 9am.  Early morning is the time of day when a cool slab and cool walls (from a night flush) would be most effective in controlling temperature.  That the thermal mass in the space exceeds the peak cooling load is a promising result.

Things I didn’t like as much, or would look into further given infinite time:

HVAC in the central core-  I don’t really like how I solved the problem of ventilation in the public restrooms and kitchen space.  I’m not sure what the solution should have been (Perhaps tying that into the HVAC system in the office space) but I know that I don’t like the huge amounts of ducting that resulted.  In general, my HVAC solutions weren’t as elegant as I would have liked.  I’m not sure what I could have done differently in the early design phases to set the stage for a more logical, clean HVAC layout.  As it turned out, the result was more chaotic and ad-hoc than I would have liked.

Acoustics in the public space-  It would probably be a very loud echo chamber, especially with the dining space being totally open within the exhibitions space.  If the building were at capacity, with a solid percentage of screaming children included, there would need to be some way to deaden the sound and prevent endless echoes.

Plumbing in the wet exhibits-  This would likely take the form of some serious drains and sanitary piping.  Since the drains would have to be in the floor, this would probably take the form of a pumping station to elevate the waste water and allow it to tie into the main drain. 

Efficacy of proposed system of natural ventilation- The proposed system makes intuitive sense, but I would really like to analyze it to confirm that it functions as designed.  I was unable to get to this in the course of the course.


Here is my integrated Bim360Glue Model:

For Viewing Online:

For Viewing in Bim360 Desktop:

I did clash detection to clear the plumbing and mechanical models with the structure.  There are no longer any clashes between these three model.  There are still 500+ clashes between the architectural model and structural.  These would obviously need to be checked and dismissed or addressed before the design could be considered anywhere near complete.

Here are my A360 Models…






View from the outside. 

View from catwalk toward entryway 

 View from touch tank area, looking up towards café and atrium

 View from catwalk

 View from upstairs classrooms overlooking public space

05 June 2016

Jiaao Wu: Art Museum - Final Design Journal

CEE 220b | Jiaao Wu

Final design journal

My exhibition center locates in Philadelphia. Picture below shows my site information and 3-D rendering of my project.

Architecture system

Here are my floor plans for two levels. My first floor includes one reception area, four offices, two conference rooms, one café, and one gift shop. Most of my area on the second floor is the exhibition space as well as two seminar rooms.

Lighting analysis

Due to help of atrium and surrounding window façade on the second floor, middle part of the first floor and most area on the second floor are as bright as possible. This meet my expectations to give enough light on the reception area and exception area.

Structural system

I choose concrete frame as my structural system. There are several cantilevers and one circle concrete in the middle to give enough support for the gravity load. For my roof supporting, I choose the steel-truss radio system. It works pretty well.

I put the model into the ROBOT structural analysis software, and check one of steel truss. Here are the screenshot of the model and result.

HVAC System

I choose VAV system as my HVAC system. For the first floor, it is a typical ventilation plan. Since my second floor is a circle shape, I use the linear slots around the envelop of the second floor to provide enough ventilation.


Plumbing system

Here is my plumbing system.

plumbing 2


My design is the combination of square and circle, which is an ancient-theory from China. Most of my work this quarter flowed pretty smoothly since a good planning helped me out. In the next step, I will continue evolve my daylight control of my project, including adjust the façade of my building or change the window-wall ratio. In addition, I will add sprinkler system and electrical system into my design. This project helped me go over every design element of a building system by Revit.

04 June 2016

Final Design Entry - Lanxi Liu - Museum of Modern Art



The initial concept of my building is to have a very open and flexible space in all levels. Especially, I want the first level, which is for exhibition purpose, to have no interior column.

In order to do that, I decided to have steel portal frame structure.

The majority of the structure load will be carried by these four steel portal frame. Since there is no interior first floor column beneath the second floor column, the floor area load acting on the secondary floor will transfer up directly to the steel portal frame. 

For the rest of the framing system, I still use steel. One of the reasons is to provide consistency and easiness for construction. The other reason is that steel usually provide higher strength with smaller size compare to concrete and timber, therefore I can have a smaller floor sandwich in the end.

As mention previously in my journal entry 4, my preliminary design looks like the following:

The secondary beam system is not added at this point.

I then run a structural analysis in Robot. After seeing the results, I realized that structure is not stiff enough for the load requirement. So I decide to add the secondary beam system.

Then I redo the structural analysis in Robot. Now the performance is pretty ok. The maximum deformation is within design limits.

The final structural system is a combination of steel framing system, composite slab and concrete piles. 


Since my building is pretty compact, I want to keep my MEP system really simple. I decide to do Variable Air Volume (VAV) system. Then for each floor sandwich, I will only have above ceiling ducts, and they can all be hided by the architectural ceiling, which makes the interior view clean.

I first assign spaces to all rooms. Then I create zones for each level. Spaces that have similar function are grouped together. Then a heating and cooling analysis is performed. From the report, I am able to look into the flow consumption requirement in each room. Then I can determine how many supply and return terminals I need.

Since my mechanical room is located near my one side of my staircase. Moreover, my second floor rooms layout follows the perimeter setting. Therefore, for my HVAC system, I also want ducts to follow the perimeter layout. Then I come up with following design.

Detailed Layouts:

Basement Layout

First Floor Layout

Second Floor Layout

Overall, the system is quite simple and standard. All ducts are sized and connect all the way to the pump located on the basement level.



Since the restroom is located in the same location throughout levels, it is quite simple to design the plumbing layout. I go back to change the orientation of some plumbing fixture in the architecture model, so it will be easier to run pipes through. 

Sprinklers are nicely layout in all level for fire protection. 

The integration of all systems is very important. I don't want ducts to run into my beams and columns. I also want all structural and mechanical components nicely hidden in the ceilling. Many adjustments were performed, and finally make all of them working together.


Overview of the project

Just to recall the initial design idea of my building. I want to have a museum that has a purely glassy exhibition area and very open space as much as possible. The building is located on a hillside in downtown of Xiamen, China.

The structural system can be summarized as steel frame system with four major steel portal frames. Standard VAV system is applied for cooling and ventilation. Plumbing system is designed for restrooms located in each level.

Here are some final renderings of my building.

Basement Floor interior

First Floor interior

Further things I can do:

In order to make my building more sustainable, I can try to implement grey water system. It rains a lot in Xiamen during summer time, it will be very help if rainwater can be reuse. To make the building more complete, an electricity system is needed if more time is available.

30 May 2016

Youth Sustainability and After School Program Center - Check in 4 - Structural Components

CEE 120B | Lucas Del Toro

Youth Sustainability and After School Program Center - Check in 4 - Structural Components

The following images show my the structural design for this building, in which I used metal columns and beams.

As seen in the last image below, I tried to aviod placing columns adjacent to the interior of the curtain wall. As a result, there are columns underlying each overhang roughly 5 feet away outside both the 1st and 2nd floor curtain walls.

Several metal columns and beams are placed outside the building. These elements have potential to aesthetically contribute to the overal building design. I am considering placing round poles around all outdoor columns.

28 May 2016

Design Check-in 6- Plumbing Systems

CEE 220B| Nirupama Kotcharlakota

Proceeding with the design I modeled the plumbing systems in Revit. For this purpose I made a new project file for the plumbing systems from a mechanical template. The design of the restrooms was done such that they all stack up one above the other. I modeled the water closets and the sinks at each level. Each level has 2 WCs, one each for male and female and 2 WCs one each for disabled access. I modeled the domestic hot water, domestic cold water and sanitary pipelines in Revit. Each sink is connected to hot water supply and cold water supply. WCs are connected to cold water supply. All the fixtures feed the waste water into a sanitary pieline system. Care has been taken to minimize exposure of pipes inside the restroom. The sanitary pipe is given a slope of 1/2"/12" to allow for easy movement of waste using gravity.

28 May 2016

Design Check-in 5- HVAC Design

CEE 220B| Nirupama Kotcharlakota

This week I developed the HVAC design and modeled the ducting layout for the entire building.

26 May 2016

Design Check In 4- Structural Systems

CEE 220B I Nirupama Kotcharlakota

I envisioned this building to have large open and exhibition spaces with bulky columns in the center allowing for fewer number of columns. This was best achieved by using concrete. I designed the structural system of this building using concrete columns, beams and slabs. Another major feature of my buildign is large cantilevers that project out from the side of the hill to provide views. Concrete I felt, was the most forgiving and flexible of materials in order to achieve this. I created a structural grid of 20' wide in the X direction and along the orientation of the slab (15 degress to the verticle). Struc1

Columns were placed at junction of the grids. In order to brace the building in all four directions against earthquake damage, I provided 4 shear walls, 1 in each direction. Three of the shear walls form the core of the stairs and the elevator. The fourth shear wall is helping the building stand against the hill, located along the hill. 


The images below show the two major cantilevers along the north and east directions. The cantilevers are limited to a maximum of 10ft in each direction for structural stability. 



I ran a structural analysis of my model using Robot Structural Analysis. By taking a simplified model of the cantilever on the east facade, I analysed the structural stability of the system I proposed.


The dispacements of the cantilevered beam can be shown below.


As can be seen, the deflection is maximum in the Z direction. This will be taken care of and compensated by designing the reba of these members after more detailed structural analysis.


26 May 2016

Design Check In 3- Preliminary Design

CEE 220B I Nirupama Kotcharlakota

This week, I finalised the areas of different spaces on each level. My entire project now is ~22000 SqFt with the following area allocation.

Space Areas1

Restrooms are located at the main core with the stairs and elevators. At each level each restroom block for both men and women will contain an ADA compliant restroom as well as a 1 water closet. 


For fire protection, in order to have two exits from each level, an additional exit will be provided leading directly to the outside level. Since the buildign is utilising the gradient of the hill to be seated, each level can actually have an exit to the outside ground level. 

I am working on developing the site plan with the exact ground elevation levels and will upload it in later stages of the design journal.

The Floor plans of Level 2, 3 and 4 are seen below respectively.




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