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CEE 120B/220B

Building Systems Integration | Winter 2016

22 March 2016

Final Design Journal/Mechanical Design

CEE 220B | Ryan Edwards

The mechanical system in my building is the system I have been looking forward to designing the most. I have experience designing mechanical systems, but have since taken courses from people such as Erik Kolderup and Peter Ramsey about energy efficient design. So my first order of business was to determine the outdoor airflow needs of my building as a whole. Although Revit has ASHRAE standards built in (or maybe its in an add-on), I wanted to do the calculations manually. So I created a schedule of the rooms in my building and added their purpose (i.e. kitchen, classroom, etc.). I then used a downloadable version of ASHRAE standard 62 to determine the occupancy of each room and the resulting required outdoor airflow. Using this method, I determined that the total outdoor airflow needs of my building would conservatively be 10,000 cfm. In hot and humid climates, or very cold climates for that matter, it is inefficient to simply exhaust air directly to the environment. That air contains energy in the form of cooling and dehumidification that is simply lost if it is simply exhausted in order to bring in new outdoor air. The solution I found was to use an Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV). I found this device on Autodesk Seek sized for my 10,000 cfm requirements. This device runs exhaust air through a heat exchanger with new incoming air in order to preheat or precool the incoming air before it is utilized within the building. Furthermore, both airflows are run through opposing sides of a desiccant wheel, which regulates the humidity of the incoming air by either adding or removing humidity with the exhaust flow. A desiccant wheel is basically a rotating cylinder of the material that you find in dried goods like beef jerky to keep moisture at a minimum. Below is a picture of the ERV. Even with the ERV, my building still needed a source of cooling. You can see in my building that I have chosen to use a system of chilled beams to act as that source. Although the ERV has some ancillary cooling and heating capabilities, they are not enough for the loads of this building. This, I suppose, is where I added some detail to my mechanical design that was not strictly required. Although more sophisticated calculations can be made to size the air conditioning tonnage needed in a building by using programs like eQuest and add-ons in Revit, I used a quick and dirty estimation method put out by ASHRAE that states the cooling tonnage needed by a building is “0.25-0.35 tons per 100 sqft of building area”. Since my building is located in a more hot and humid environment, I conservatively calculated the load using the higher end of that scale. This resulted in a required HVAC capacity of roughly 80 tons. Because I was using chilled beams to cool my building, I needed a chiller to provide enough cold water for the chilled beams to operate. I located a packaged chiller unit on Autodesk seek with the required tonnage and added it into my building. The packaged unit is nice because it contains not only the chiller, but also the cooling towers needed to exhaust the heat being removed from the building all in one package. In larger buildings, cooling towers and chillers are sized independently and combined in many creative and interesting ways to deal with the variable HVAC needs of a building. However, this process was simplified in my case. Finally, all that was left was to connect the packaged chiller to the chilled beams via piping. This process was simply an extension of duct placement in that it has to fit within the ceiling space and not come into contact with other things in that space such as ducts and beams, etc. An expansion of this design process is to reduce the numbers of tight elbows and tees in your plumbing design (easier said than done), which will reduce the friction losses throughout your system and reduce the pump energy needed to push water through the system. This would be akin to removing cholesterol in your veins to make it easier for your heart to pump blood through your system. This is a concept that people like Peter Rumsey use to design extremely energy efficient building designs. It takes quite a bit of creativity because larger elbows including series of 45 degree angles instead of 90 degree angles takes up quite a bit more space than simple tees. Below you can see how I designed these systems and how they come together.

21 March 2016

Architectural Check-In

CEE 120B- Schmitz

Architectural Check-In
My family was really excited to contribute to the programming of this project. Most of the architectural themes come from my parents’ tastes, like the sloped roofs, large windows, high ceilings, and open spaces. Some aspects, especially of the cellar, are also functional; we needed at least 12’ of clear space in the cellar for machinery and a vehicle accessible entrance to the cellar. We decided to build it out in three major stages: (See the below image) 1. Tasting Room et. al and Cellar (Red). The entire footprint of the first floor (including all stages) is inscribed in the footprint of the cellar. The cellar is a large space, almost entirely underground. The cellar walls and groups are concrete, which helps the space maintain a constant temperature. Parts of the roof of the cellar are green roofs that host patios for outside seating. From the patios, there are skylights into the cellar, which provide views into the winemaking process for guests as well as daylight into cellar. Roughly a quarter (North-East) of the cellar space is unoccupied, and serves as storage space for agricultural equipment and mechanical space. The above-ground structure of phase one will have a rectangular footprint. On the first floor, there is the main tasting room, a large open space; two bathrooms; and a staff room, which also has a small washroom. On the second floor, there is a balcony above the tasting room called the tasting balcony, and one large office space. Because the roof slopes steeply, the wall meets the roof only about 3’ from the floor. Large dormer windows both bring in light and provide spaces for seating where guests are less likely to bump their heads on the ceiling. 2. Event room (later restaurant dining), second office and bathrooms (Green). The second stage includes an event room for large parties, and also a second set of bathrooms to accommodate those guests. The event room has a large curtain wall on the North side (true North-West), which both lets in light and provides views of the growing vines. This addition will give the building an L-shaped footprint. On the second floor, there will be a second office. Both offices will have skylights on the north side and will also have windows looking over the event room. These windows both allow administrators to supervise the event room, as necessary, and also lets additional light into the offices. 3. Kitchen and new event room (Blue). The last stage will include a commercial kitchen and a new event room. At this stage, the event room from Stage 2 will be converted to a restaurant dining room. As the restaurant dining room, the space will be more frequently used (and the views more frequently appreciated). The new event space, built in Stage 3, will be for less frequent events. The Office 2 (Built in Stage 2) will also have windows down to the new event room and to the kitchen. The kitchen has direct access to both the restaurant dining room and the event room. To be continued: -My mother remains unconvinced that there is such a thing as too much light. We compromised that we would install shades for the times that the sun shines too directly into a space, but in general she requested that a space be over saturated with light rather than risk darkness, and we also agreed that having a feel of the outdoors, even inside, was a positive (‘People can wear sunglasses inside!’). I am still interested in looking to improve the brightness. -I want to add fireplaces, probably around the intersection B2. -My brother is looking into gravity-based winemaking (http://blog.winecollective.ca/2013/07/12/gravity-flow-winemaking/), so we may change the cellar, possibly even adding a second underground layer. -My parents would like a dumb waiter to carry cases of wine up from the cellar. -I would like to work with Revit’s landscaping to mold the earth around the cellar as needed. -I saw options to mark different elements constructed/ demolished at specified phases, and I would be interested in testing that tool to build out the separate phases.

21 March 2016

Mechanical Check In

CEE 120B- Julia Schmitz

My mechanical system (for now) is an entirely forced air system. In general, air is supplied though the floor and is returned through overhead terminals. The system of the building is broken into eight zones and fifteen spaces. Because the building will be built in three stages, each zone is entirely inside of one phase. The system is handled by four air handlers, one for the cellar and each of the three phases of construction. The air handlers are located in a mechanical room in the basement. One major challenge I had was due to the fact that, besides bathrooms and offices, most of the spaces in the winery are large and open and required huge amounts of forced air. It did not make sense to me to subdivide spaces, but the ducts required needed to be very large (or so I thought… see further work). Another challenge was manipulating the schema of the ductwork to fit with the changing form of the building throughout the construction phases. Particularly the return air for phase one (including the tasting room and one office) was tricky to fit, as it had to be vented through what would become a hallway in phase two. To fit this, I decided that I wanted to prioritize a well-spaced hallway over a more ideal/ efficient size of ductwork. To be continued: -I realized (after I finished designing the entire system) that my building’s construction was improperly overridden. Accounting for my building’s values decreased all the necessary air quantities by at least 50%, and in some cases almost 75% (The cellar’s calculated supply air decreased from ~4500CFM to ~1200CFM)! While I am happy for the silver lining of my building having a much lower demand, this means that I have to resize my system. -I would like to add a radiant heat system, especially in the cellar but also across the first floor. -Architecturally, I would like to add a fireplace, and I am interested in looking into how the fireplace would interact with the thermal masses throughout the building on heating days. -For cooling days, I plan for the dormers and skylights to be operable, and I would like to investigate the effects of natural cooling on the site. This area receives summer breezes from the south, so it would be ideal to keep southern windows on the first floor and some of the northern dormer windows open in the tasting room. In the other rooms, each room (minus the bathrooms and staff room) have either dormer windows or skylights, so hot air can rise out of the spaces. -I am interested in looking more closely at the requirements for the kitchen space. It is currently designated as a “Food Preparation” space, but the calculated air supply (~650 CFM) seems low to me for a space that will be so heated and fume-y.

17 March 2016

Journal Entry 8 - Final Design

CEE 220B | Brittany Morra

Overall, I am pleased with the design of the community center and rehab facility. Of course there are things I would like to add, fix, or complete, but such is the nature of the project.

I enjoyed designing the buildings and thinking through all the aspects of the building systems. There are so many things to consider when designing a building, and I now have a much better understanding of what those things are and how all the systems in a building work together.

It is so easy to enter a building and feel like, “this doesn’t work. What is so hard about designing a __ that makes sense?” But alas, it is very difficult indeed. It is nearly impossible to think of everything, especially as one person. It is important to have a team of people working on one project, because having more than one perspective, experience, and set of eyes improves the quality of the building. It can be frustrating to work with others on a design, but I think that the final product justifies the compromises that are made during the design process.

For my project, I was not sure how to model some of the design features. I wanted the atrium to have operable windows that could be opened for ventilation, like the atrium in Y2E2. Because the room has an entirely glass roof, it will have a lot of solar heat gain -- the windows would allow the warm air to leave the space and prevent it from getting too hot in the summer.

The same goes for the clerestory windows throughout the community center. They could be opened for more air flow through the space and provide an exit for the rising hot air during the warm summer months.

Another feature that I would like to include are window shades. They would moderate the amount of light and solar heat coming into the building, since there are so many windows. And shades would allow the occupants to have greater control over the space.

The last feature I would like to include are ceiling fans. They would help circulate the air and keep the buildings cooler.

If I had more time, I would like to go through and attempt to fix the clashes found in 360 Glue and learn how to incorporate the systems better in the future.

My renderings do not reflect the image of the spaces that I have in my mind, but they are a great start!

16 March 2016

Journal Entry 6 - Plumbing

CEE 220B | Brittany Morra

I found that the plumbing system was easier than the mechanical system, but I still ran into a few challenges. First, I had uploaded some bathroom fixtures from revitcity and, after some frustrating attempts at connecting the plumbing, found out that those fixtures were not plumbing compatable. Once I switched to the fixtures from teh revit library, it was much easier to connect the piping to the fixtures, since they were actually connectable.

Additionally, I ended up with pipes in very strange places when I tried to place them. They did not always end up on the plane I intended. But I figured that out as well, and now I have a fully plumbed bathroom!

16 March 2016

Journal Entry 5 - HVAC

CEE 220B | Brittany Morra

I decided to do the HVAC design for the rehab center rather than the community center. The community center HVAC system would be complicated, since the rooms all have different ventiliation, heating and cooling loads. The rehab center has consistent heating, cooling, and ventilation needs, which makes putting in a HVAC system easier.

I began with the supply terminals and ducts, then added the return terminals and ducts. I originally had the return ducts on the interior side of the terminals. But when I tried to size the ducts, I kept getting an error message that said that the flow in one portion was the wrong direction and it could not be sized. After trying several different things, I switched the ducts to the exterior side of the terminals and then it worked.

Another issue I had was connecting the ducts to the HVAC unit. I originally had the return ducts offset by a foot so they would not interfere with the supply ducts, but I could not get the return duct to properly attach to the HVAC unit. So I moved the return ducts to the same level as the supply ducts, which is not ideal, but it worked for now.

16 March 2016

Final Design Journal Entry : Museum for Visual Culture

CEE 220B | Jacqueline Lo

Final Design: Customers will mainly enter throguh the main entrance facing the harbor.
Main Entrance
Main Entrance
Once customers entered the museum, they will be able to identify the information centers and enjoy the view of the oval-shape gift shop and restaurants.
Reception
Reception
In order to appreciate the benefits from the spearated design of the galleries and the atrium, skylights are designed to introduce sunlight into the resting areas and the cafe region.
Main Atrium
Main Atrium
Skylights
Skylights
A resting area is designed for customers who wanted to chat with their friends and rest for a cup of coffee.
L1 Resting Area
L1 Resting Area
In order to introduce some passive convection for air movements, the norht and south entrance of the building are designed to act as a one whole path straight through the museum, introducing cool/fresh air into the museum.
North Entrance
North Entrance
By the right of the main entrance, customers can walk down to the lower level, where the library will be located.
Library
Library
Skylights are introduced not only in the roof but also on the first floor in order to bring in daylights to the library. These daylighted zone are designed to be the reading zone for the library users.
Library reading zone
Library reading zone
Temporary galleries are located throughout the museum and composes half of the space of the exhibition in the museum. These artworks will be rotated and customers can enjoy new exhibits every now and then.
Temporary Gallery 5 near Art Studios
Temporary Gallery 5 near Art Studios
Temporary Gallery 5 near Atrium
Temporary Gallery 5 near Atrium
Customers can enjoy the view of the whole atrium by taking the stair case in the main atrium to Level 2. In order to create similar effects, there is a grand staircase designed from Level 2 to Level 3 bringing the customers to the third floor (green roof) where performance can take place outdoor.
Stair case from L2 to L3
Stair case from L2 to L3

16 March 2016

Design Journal Entry 6 : Museum for Visual Culture

CEE 220B | Jacqueline Lo

Plumbing System: For design purpose, the restroom by the north side are not stacked on top of each other to leave room for an open space on the 2nd floor and cope with the aligned design of the education rooms on the basement level 1.
Location of Restrooms
Location of Restrooms
In contrast, the south side restrooms are designed to stack on top of each other to facilitate running pipes vertically.
South restroom
South restroom
Pipes run vertically through the elevator shaft that locates adjacent to the restrooms.
Cross-section of pipes
Cross-section of pipes
pipes 3D view
Plumbing 3D view

16 March 2016

Design Journal Entry 5 : Museum for Visual Culture

CEE 220B | Jacqueline Lo

HVAC System: First, cooling loads are calculated for each space and HVAC zones in order to understand the chiller beam capacity needed.
HVAC zone L1
HVAC zone L1
HVAC zone L2
HVAC zone L2
The museum is located in Hong Kong, a subtropical climate zone; hence, cooling demanded more than heating. Thus, chill beams are introduced as the primary source for cooling load within each gallery. While fresh & cold air is introduced through chill beams, returned air is collected through air diffusers across the perimeter of the room right below the ceiling.
HVAC Level 1
HVAC Level 1
The main atrium of the museum is unique as compare to other parts of the building. Chilled air are introduced through diffusers around the walls facing the atrium and from the circumfrance of oval building. Return air are collected through terminals hanged from the roof.
HVAC 3D
HVAC 3D
All air will pass through the air handling unit per floor with fresh air and exhaust air handled through one main propeller/ vertical duct to the roof at each end of the building.
HVAC cross section
HVAC cross section

16 March 2016

Design Journal Entry 4 : Museum for Visual Culture

CEE 220B | Jacqueline Lo

Structural System

16 March 2016

Design Journal Entry 3 : Museum for Visual Culture

CEE 220B | Jacqueline Lo

Building Layout Firmed Up

16 March 2016

Old City Hall Renovation

220B | Gustavo Vela-Moreno

Old City Hall Renovation
INTRODUCTION: The idea behind my project came from my personal experience growing up in an underserved community with a large population of immigrant workers. Due to the long work days, most parents would only get to see their kids at night and this meant that during the day teenagers would have no supervision and often get caught up with gangs and other negative influences. This problem inspired me to find a solution based on community and leadership development. The first idea that came to mind was that of a community center where teens could have a dedicated space to meet and do fun activities while receiving academic support. Once the purpose of the space was defined, I focused on the location. Recently there has been a strong effort to revitalize the downtown of Woodburn, OR. An increase in commercial development has occurred near the city’s freeway intersection over the last 15 years, and the downtown has remained rather stagnant. The city has taken the initiative to revitalize the downtown and this included a landscape/hardscape project to create a plaza in the heart of downtown. A few blocks north of this location you may find the old city hall, a brick building built in 1914. This old city hall has been unoccupied for several years now and has the potential to provide everything that I envisioned when developing the idea for this project. The old city hall’s historical significance is both a constraint and a good fit for the new use of the building. For this project I decided to renovate the building a repurpose it as a community center with dedicated spaces for: children, teenagers and adults. In addition the building has a large events center that could serve as a venue for weddings and Quinceañeras and an office space for a community minded organization to work in.

14 March 2016

Design Journal Entry 8 - Final Design

CEE 220B | Seng Chai Ang

Figure 1. Overall Buildings at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (Cloud Rendering)

Voila, this is my completed project site envisioned at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve adjacent to Stanford’s campus based on Revit’s Cloud rendering (Figure 1). It spans a total area of 36,098 square feet and is formed with multiple buildings with different functionalities—exhibition building, educational (leaf-like) building, conference building and offices. These buildings are connected with a courtyard situated in the heart of the project site, which serves as dining and recreation area. As outlined in Design Journal Entry 1, some of the architectural designs in my project site are inspired by modern architectures, including California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco), Walt Disney Concert Hall (Los Angeles) and Henderson Center (Hong Kong). Thus, they (for instance, green dome and water pool) fairly resemble the attributes of the original buildings. To exemplify sustainable design practice, sustainable features are incorporated into the project site, including bris soleil, green roofs, grey water system, light shelves, photovoltaic cells, rainwater pool and wind turbines.

The following images are some Cloud renderings and screenshots taken in Revit:

Figure 2. Overall Buildings at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (Revit)

Figure 3. Overall Floor Plan of Project Site

Figure 4. Entrance View of Exhibition Building

Figure 5. Courtyard View during the Evening

Figure 6. Courtyard View during the Day

Figure 7. Basement of Courtyard

Figure 8. Lobby of Exhibition Building

Figure 9. Rainforest Dome of Exhibition Building

Figure 10. Lobby and Rainforest Dome of Exhibtion Building at Night

Figure 11. Greenroof at Courtyard

Figure 12. View from Second Floor of Circular Elevator

Figure 13. Educational Space/Seminar Room of Leaf-like Building

Figure 14. Rainwater Pool adjacent to Leaf-like Building

For more details on design ideas and building development, please refer to Design Journal Entry 1, 2 and 3. Adding on details to these design journal entries, the daylighting analysis plays a crucial role in determining the final architectural attributes of this project site. In order to maximize the penetration of sunlights into the building, skylights, windows, curtain walls and floor openings are installed at necessary locations. On the other hand, places that experience excessive solar radiation are installed with different shading features, such as bris soleil (Figure 15), light shelves (Figure 16) and overhangs (Figure 16). After series of trials and runs (Figure 18 to Figure 21), the two buildings involved (exhibition and leaf-like buildings) are able to gain one point for LEED daylighting credit (88% passing at 9am and 93% passing at 3pm) and is 2% shy from the higher standard of LEED daylighting credit.

Figure 15. Bris Soleil at the Third Floor of Exhibtion Building

Figure 16. Overhang and Light Shelves at the South Side of Exhibition Building

Figure 17. Green Roof and Wind Turbines View from Observatory Deck

Figure 18. Daylighting Analysis of Exhibition Building (First Floor)

Figure 19. Daylighting Analysis of Exhibition Building (Second Floor)

Figure 20. Daylighting Analysis of Exhibition Building (Third Floor)

Figure 21. Daylighting Analysis of Leaf-like Building

In terms of structural system, its final version is similar to that described in Design Journal Entry 4, except for a small portion at the south side of the project site. I initially overlooked the inclined roof structure of the building and subsequently, updated its structural system to a more well-suited structural system, as illustrated in Figure 22. Additionally, I would also like to label the structural system uniquely created for the leaf-like buildings, as illustrated in Figure 23.

Figure 22. Portion of Structural System of Exhibition Building

Figure 23. Structural System of Leaf-like Building

As for HVAC, plumbing and electrical systems, their final versions are exactly the same to those described in Design Journal Entry 5, 6 and 7. The images below are the overall 3D views of respective system:

Figure 24. Overall Ventilation System of Exhibition Building

Figure 25. Overall Ventilation System of Leaf-like Buildidng

Figure 26. Overall Radiant Floor Heating System

Figure 27. Plumbing System of Portion of Exhibition Building

Figure 28. Electrical System of Portion of Exhibition and Leaf-like Buildings

Overall, this class project provides me in-depth insights on how different building systems can be integrated to serve the purpose of a project site, be it the architectural, structural, HVAC, plumbing, electrical or lighting system. Even though some of the systems are not exhaustive throughout my project, I am able to obtain different flavors from creating each system in Revit and utilizing associated building analysis, in line with knowledge obtained in lectures. On a side note, some further works that I would like to work on would be completing the HVAC and plumbing systems for the entire project site, and reducing clashes between these systems.

14 March 2016

Design Journal Entry 7 - Electrical Systems

CEE 220B | Seng Chai Ang

The electrical system is created for a portion of the exhibition building (exhibition spaces, as shown in Figure 1) and leaf-like building (educational space / seminar room, as shown in Figure 2) for the purpose of this assignment. It simply consists of a few electrical outlets and connecting wires. For electrical outlets, 120 V standard duplex receptacle is utilized for general purpose whereas ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) is commonly used in area associated with water to reduce the risk of electric shock. While wiring is unnecessary in Revit (commonly performed by experts in industry), the electrical outlets and lighting fixtures can be connected with wires in Revit, either via arced or chamfered wirings.

Figure 1. Electrical Systems in Exhibition Spaces in Exhibition Building

Figure 2. Electrical Systems in Educational Space / Seminar Room in Leaf-like Building

14 March 2016

Design Journal Entry 6 - Plumbing Systems

CEE 220B | Seng Chai Ang

Since the restrooms in the exhibition building are vertically stacked, this arrangement eases the work to create a plumbing system (copying most of the plumbing systems in the first floor to the second floor), as shown in Figure 1. The branching pipes are conveniently connected to the main pipes in the mechanical room situated in between the restrooms in each floor.

Figure 1. Plumbing Systems in Exhibition Building (3D)

To exemplify sustainable design practice, this building utilizes a greywater system for reuse purposes—the greywater collected from the washbasins is used to flush the toilet bowls; this will help to reduce the amount of freshwater required for the building. In terms of pipe routings, the pressurized domestic cold and hot water pipes, and greywater supply pipes can be routed in any preferable direction. In contrast, the sanitary and greywater collector pipes can only be routed in a directional slope (downwards) to utilize gravitational forces to move their associated fluids (shown in Figure 2).

Figure 2. Plumbing Systems in Exhibition Building (Section Plan)

As for sprinkler system, it is auto-routed in Revit using network and perimeter systems since these systems reasonably fit most of the pipes within the responsible spaces (shown in Figure 3 and 4). For openings in the first floor, it is manually routed since the pipes pass through the openings inappropriately. Additionally, the pipes responsible for sprinkler system are created at 10’ 2’’ from each floor level at maximum to reduce clashes between this system and other building systems (HVAC, structural and other plumbing systems).

Figure 3. Ceiling Plan of Sprinkler Systems in Exhibition Building (First Floor)

Figure 4. Ceiling Plan of Sprinkler Systems in Exhibition Building (Second Floor)

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