Which types of structural framing systems and materials are most commonly used in the US for residences? For office buildings?
What factors determine why these are the most used materials?
The most common types of structural framing systems and materials used in the US for residences are wood column and beam systems. Concrete systems are also used, especially as shear walls. My apartment building for example has the first two stories (parking structure) built of concrete, and the top 5 floors built of wood framing. For office buildings, concrete or steel systems are commonly used.
Why do different teams of designers and subcontractors link and share their models during the design process?
What are the advantages of linking models?
Are there any disadvantages to linking models?
Different teams link and share their models to find design flaws and clashes between ideas during the design process. Advantages of linking models include easy modeling of structural elements based on the architectural model without having to model a building again. A disadvantage of linking models is that it can be difficult to link a model correctly - when this isn’t done correctly it can affect the modeling that occurs after the model is linked.
How do you think design coordination was done before we started using digital models?
What advantages does doing this coordination digitally have over previous methods?
Before BIM and other digital models, design coordination between architects and structural engineers was likely done by overlaying structural and architectural plans using light tables/lightboxes. Digital coordination has the advantage of allowing for easy collaboration between stakeholders, architects, and engineers. The ability to create different views quickly is another advantage.
What strategies can design teams use to find and avoid clashes prior to the start of construction?
What can be done besides sharing the models digitally?
At what point in the project development process should design coordination start?
Is it ever too early?