Sketch of the concept massing, view from the Clementi road
Part 1: Site Analysis
Site features: I have included reference images of the site, which is located next to the School of Architecture at the National University of Singapore. The site is located on a slightly sloped terrain, with a view of a beautiful park and a patch of tropical green forest. The Site has a pedestrian overhead bridge connecting the School of Architecture building and the bus station. On the left-hand side towards the flat lawn, there is an entrance connected with Clementi road. The challenge here is to develop a building that sits next to nature while do not have a significant impact on the preserved green patch.
Local climate condition: Singapore's weather is hot and humid all year, owing to its location just 137 kilometers above the Equator. The average temperature during the day is 31°C and 24°C at night. Walking around at midday can be difficult, especially between April and May when relative humidity exceeds 80%. Singapore's climate, like that of the rest of Southeast Asia, is heavily influenced by two monsoon winds. We must consider the high humidity and the amount of water that can be harvested, which may be sufficient for the building's use.
With the distinctive hot and humid tropical climate, it is clear that the design strategy should follow this principle: Reduce the solar radiation affecting the building, Enhance natural ventilation, More shading system to protect the interior area, and Evaporative cooling and other active cooling system to maintain the indoor comfort.
Adjacent buildings and public spaces: The site is adjacent to the National University of Singapore, which mostly comprises 4-5 floors and does not require special consideration in terms of history or building conservation. Clementi park, a large recreational area, is located to the north of the site and offers several open spaces and play courts, with many weekend activities taking place. This is the main recreational area for the Clementi residence area.
Proposed location of the site (within the existing park)
3D Topography in Revit with the adjacent building massing
Topography: The site has a slightly sloped terrain, varied from +3500mm to +9300mm with a total site area of XXXX m2. Image from the right column: 1. The flat lawn with the play court 2. The rainforest patch 3. Clementi park with existing footpath and open space area.
Topography model with level differences
Part 2: Concept development story
Part 3: Analysis and building massing study
In this study, I examine the two basic massing options. Each massing has a superficial area of 1000 m2 and has 3 floors, each floor height is 4m. The total GFA is 3000m2 which is equivalent to 30,000 sft. With its location near the equator, the sun's path has a symmetric shape, and the direct sun angle changes from East to West. Part of the time in Spring and Autumn, the sun's angle is perpendicular to the ground surface which has the largest solar radiation potential.
Option 2 has the EW orientation (for the two main facades) reduces less solar energy than the NS orientation which is a good solution because we prefer to reduce as much heat as possible in the interior space.
As a building in a tropical region, I did a simulation with a roof overhang of 5m on each side. The roof is made of solid and thick material to check the effectiveness of solar radiation reduction in the building. It is indicated in the simulation that the orientation of the massing does not affect the Solar PV potential for the rooftop.
Original setting: barely meeting ASHRAE
With the optimized orientation, facade design, and Passive / Active design system, we have the Benchmark reduced nearly meeting Architecture 2030. Lighting Efficiency, Daylighting & Occupancy Controls, Plug Load Efficiency, HVAC optimization and Operating Schedule play an important role in reducing these load.
Sketch: Massing options development