As my location is situated in Singapore, a tropical country with a hot and humid climate, there are several design strategies that I have incorporated into my study and some other goal and targets to make the building sustainable.
Goal 1: Reduce solar energy effect on the building massing
-The building will be measured by simulation of the total solar radiation effect to the massing, which is expected to be lower than the average. It will be gone through a Design and Simulation process to achieve the best target.
-Minimally acceptable value: 30% solar radiation effect reduction
-Desired / target value: 50% plus solar radiation effect reduction
-The project target is to get a minimally acceptable value: 50% reduction in total solar energy received compared to the baseline
-First, the building is orientated in the North and South direction, this tactic helps to minimize the facade that faces directly to the sun and reduce the energy absorbed. The glazing facade is designed for both the North and South directions.
-The East and West facades will have an integrated green facade with an open gap to foster the ventilation of the mass of air behind which acts as a natural insulation
Figure 1: Sketch of the NS orientation massing strategy
Goal 2: Reduce energy use and provide renewable energy production and improve Indoor environmental quality
-LEED Energy and Atmosphere credit point, LEED Indoor Environmental Quality. The building will be measured by simulation of the Energy Use Intensity (EUI)
-Minimally acceptable value: 40% reduction in EUI compared to baseline
-Desired / target value: 50% plus reduction in EUI compared to baseline
-The massing will have gaps to foster natural ventilation, according to the prevailing wind in Singapore the North-South wind. To connect the massing, there will be a rooftop connector provided which also acts as a shading area in the public ventilated spaces.
Figure 2: Sketch of the gap between blocks for ventilation
-The building will have a large roof to accommodate the installation of PV panels. The area of the roof will be designed according to the total energy consumption of the building (estimated by kWh per square feet) to make the building to be Net-zero energy.
Figure 3: Sketch of the rooftop design for the PV panel
Goal 3: Water efficiency design and self-sufficient food by rooftop farming
-LEED Water efficiency, and Total vegetable produced per year per headcount.
-Minimally acceptable value: 2 points
-Desired / target value: 6+ points
-Minimally 50% self-sufficient food (vegetables produced enough for staff)
-Desired / target value: 100% self-sufficient food
-The building will have an accessible green roop top with a community garden to produce enough vegetables for its use as an archetype of urban farming and learning center. The total area of the farming area will be calculated based on the estimated consumption to serve the visitors.
-With a large body of water, it helps to regulate the hot temperature through natural evaporation effects. The pond is also acted as a natural rainwater reserve while the water will be pumped back to water the rooftop farming on sunny days. It will be designed in a shape of a terracing paddy field in the inspiration part mentioned before.
-Use of water indoors and outdoors should be considered for the reduction strategies
Figure 4: Sketch of rooftop farming and water body
Goal 4: Restore and create Ecological, natural, flexible spaces
-LEED Sustainable Site Credit: Site Development—Protect or Restore Habitat, Open Space, Heat island reduction and Site assessment
-Minimally acceptable value: 5 points (restore or provide 30%+ of site area as outdoor space with native vegetation and heat island reduction)
-Desired / target value: 7 points or more (preserve and protect 60%+ of the site’s greenfield area from development AND restore/provide 40%+ of site area as outdoor space with native vegetation)
-The building will be designed as flexible and open spaces to help foster natural ventilation in the corridors and public spaces. With this open-air corridor strategy, more natural lighting will penetrate into the interior and reduce the energy for lighting purposes.
Figure 5: Sketches of open and flexible spaces
Finally, the massing will have lots of protrusion to create nitches for green space incorporation. It is inspired by the natural ventilated caves in the inspiration part mentioned before and helps to protect/restore habitat.
Figure 6: Sketch of massing protrusion strategies
Goal 5: Use Sustainable/Reused Materials
-LEED Material and Resources Credit
-Minimally acceptable value: 6 points
-Desired / target value: 8 points or more
-Minimize the use of concrete, building life-cycle impact reduction
-Reused the material from the previously demolished building near NUS
-Construction and demolition waste management
-Using recycled wood for the facade and incorporating the green facade on it (For example TCOM building at the National University of Singapore)
-Using bamboo and wood for the interior spaces, flooring, and pavilion structure
Figure 6: Using of the wood structure for the TCOM building at NUS with the incorporation of a green facade on it to reduce solar radiation
Goal 6: Location and Transportation enhancement
-LEED Location and Transporation credit points
-Minimally acceptable value: 9 points
-Desired / target value: 13 points
-Surrounding density and diverse uses
-Assess quality transits (bus station and MRT)
-Provide bicycle facilities for users and visitors
-Reduce the parking footprint
-Provide parking for green vehicles such as electric cars
-More public transit drop-off points and charging stations