Sandro Boaro


Building Envelope Adjustments:

Wall Construction: Change to R-13 + R-10 Metal → Reduced EUI by ~.87 EUI

North WWR: Reduce from 95% → 14% BIM optimization → Reduce 1.4 EUI

West WWR: Reduce from 95% to 30% → Reduces by 3.4 EUI

East Wall Shading: 2/3 Height Adjustment → 1.1 EUI


The changes I made with this model were very limited. Reducing every building envelope option would be unrealistic. As a result, I aimed to reduce the most effective settings to achieve the 54.1 EUI requirement. The .1 above 54 is acceptable in my opinion because in order to change that .1 with the settings listed above, I would have to reduce window ratios to 0 for the west and north faces. The largest changes to the EUI come as a result of improving wall R-values, Window to Wall Ratios, and Shading on the sunniest portion of the building. Surprisingly, the building orientation had zero effect.

Building Envelope + Lighting

Daylighting * Occupancy Control: Reduces EUI by 1.1

Plug Load reductions to 1.0W / SF: Reductions of 6.2 EUI

Lighting Efficiency reduction to 1.1W/SF : 3.4 EUI


I was very surprised how much more of an impact the electrical efficiency and plug load efficiency affected the building's EUI. With the size of this home, the adjustments listed above make sense. Occupancy lighting controls coupled with reduction in WWR allows the home to control its energy use with greater control than the fixities of wall and room constructions. Without the changes of the building envelope, the effects of daylight controls would be much less.

Envelope + Lighting Controls + PV:

PV Coverage to 75% → allow for adequate coverage without the budget required for 90%

PV Efficiency → Conservative 18.6%

Payback Period → 20 Year limit allows for a long term investment in the home without forcing every ounce of "smart" energy use


With all of these adjustments, the home now has the ability to have a negative EUI usage. However, upon playing with the settings, it would be an unrealistic achievement for the building since 0% WWR ratios is counterintuitive to the use of the space. Our marks did miss the Architecture 2030 standards, but not by much. I aimed to make these changes as if I was the home owner taking into account costs + investment factors with each setting.