For this assignment, I wanted to design a stadium.
Step 1 - Generative Design Framework
Design Decision 1: Architectural Design–Seating Configuration and Orientation
- Objective: When designing a new stadium, it is important to optimize seating for both seat density and viewer sight view. By maximizing the view and seat density, we aim to create an immersive game atmosphere and attract more ticket sales.
- Design Variables:
- The radius of the seating curve
- Seat width and height
- Number of rows
- Incline angle
- Spectator comfort: Consider factors like legroom, seat width, and ergonomic design.
- Sightline quality: Ensure unobstructed views of the field or performance area from all seats.
- Seating capacity: Maximize the number of seats while maintaining a comfortable and enjoyable experience for spectators.
- Ticket sales/profit: The potential profit in ticket sales resulting from the optimized view, attracting more fans to attend games.
- Ticket Sales vs. Spectator Comfort: Increasing ticket sales profit by maximizing the number of seats to purchase may lead to tighter seating arrangements and reduced individual comfort.
- Ticket Sales vs. Sightline Quality: Ensuring optimal sightlines may require the sacrifice of some seating capacity, especially in areas with challenging viewing angles.
Design Decision 2: Structural Design: Roof/canopy Design
- Objective: The objective is to optimize the design and shape of a retractable canopy in a stadium to effectively block the sun. This ensures fair playing conditions and prevents players from being disadvantaged due to sun glare.
- Design Variables:
- Inclined angle of the canopy
- Height and Length of the canopy
- Canopy shape, such as a semicircle, which can be characterized by its radius.
- Roof materials (steel, glass, ETFE, etc.)
- Structural Integrity: Ensure the roof can withstand various loads, including wind, snow, and potential maintenance activities.
- Aesthetics: Create an appealing and iconic roof design that complements the stadium's architectural style.
- Surface area: The overall surface area of the canopy, which can be used to calculate the cost of construction and maintenance.
- Sunlight exposure to the court: The amount of sunlight reaching the court, which can be used to determine the shade ability ratio and ensure optimal playing conditions.
- Structural Integrity vs. Aesthetics: Achieving complex or unconventional roof designs may require additional structural support and increase the overall cost.
- Cost vs. Shade Ability: Balancing the cost of constructing and maintaining the canopy with its effectiveness in providing shade on the court.
Design Decision 3: Sustainability
- Objective: Incorporate sustainable design principles and practices in the stadium design to minimize environmental impact, reduce energy consumption, and promote long-term sustainability.
- Design Variables:
- Stadium top & middle height
- Stadium base, middle & top radius
- Stadium material
- Stadium orientation
- Carbon Footprint: carbon footprint assessment to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the stadium's construction or operation.
- Operating Cost Saving: Assessing the cost savings achieved through solar energy or any other energy-efficient systems.
- Total rooftop solar potential: Conducting a solar energy analysis to determine the potential energy generation on the stadium's rooftop throughout the year.
- Life Cycle Assessment: Assessing the environmental impact of the stadium design throughout its entire life cycle, including raw material extraction, construction, operation, and eventual demolition.
- Cost vs. Energy Efficiency: Implementing energy-efficient features may require higher upfront investments but can result in long-term energy cost savings.
- Renewable Energy Generation vs. Cost: Incorporating renewable energy sources may have additional costs, but they can contribute to a lower carbon footprint and long-term energy savings.
- Material Selection vs. Environmental Impact: Choosing materials with a low environmental impact while ensuring their durability and performance.
- Energy Efficiency vs. Occupant Comfort: Striking a balance between energy efficiency measures and maintaining a comfortable environment for spectators and players.
Step 2 - Generative Design Study
I decided to pursue study design decision 1: Architectural Design–Seating Configuration and Orientation.
To model this trade-off, the following dynamo was created shown in the figure below.
The purple section indicates variables that can be adjusted per project and must be set accordingly before executing the script. The green section designates the generation of Dynamo geometry. The blue section represents the calculation logic for the final evaluators. The orange section denotes the visualization logic for the Dynamo geometry. Lastly, the pink section shows the evaluators that are computed based on the provided inputs.
In order to clearly present the generative design tool that was developed, we will explore the various elements comprising the comprehensive design framework. These elements include the Objective, Model, Design Variables, Constant Variables, Evaluators, and Interpretation.
The objective is to create an optimal seating configuration that balances seat density and viewer sight view. The goal is to maximize the number of seats and potential ticket sales net income while minimizing the average distance to a focal point and the ratio of obstructed to unobstructed views. The overarching aim is to design an immersive game atmosphere and attract more ticket sales.
To begin, we will create a model of the focal point and the front row line. The front row line is created by a circle with an adjustable radius referred to as the "Bottom Row Radius". This circle is then moved along the z-axis using a variable called "Seat Height".
Then, the width of the aisle and the number of seating zone is modeled. The code is adjusted based on the “15-AmphitheatreTradeoffs” logic.
Afterward, the row array is created by offsetting the front row line. The offset distance is determined by a variable known as "Seat Width". Additionally, other parameters that can be adjusted to customize the row array include the number of rows, incline angle, and seat height.
The seat’s two surfaces, namely the backrest and the seat base are formed.
Subsequently, seat-eye level points are generated by initially creating a curve and subsequently dividing the curve into points based on the number of seats per row.
Then, the view lines are formed by connecting the focal points and the seat-eye level points.
Finally, To modify the color of the seats and focal points, I utilize the following code:
- Number of zones: Stadiums are divided into different zones or sections to accommodate different types of spectators, such as general seating, VIP areas, corporate boxes, etc. This value ranges from 4 to 8 zones.
- Number of rows: The number of rows determines the vertical extent of the seating arrangement. It affects the overall capacity of the stadium and the sightlines for spectators. The number of rows can be adjusted to range from 5 to 20 rows.
- Seat width per person: The seat width per person determines the comfort and personal space allocated to each spectator. It is an important consideration for providing a comfortable viewing experience. The seat width can vary from 1 o 2 ft.
- Incline angle: The incline angle of the seating tiers affects the visibility and sightlines for spectators. It is important to provide good sightlines from every seat, minimizing obstructions and ensuring a clear view of the playing field. The incline angle can vary from 0.25 to 0.55 radians.
- Bottom Row Radius: The bottom-row radius refers to the distance between the edge of the playing field and the bottom row of seats. The bottom-row radius of my stadium is set to 50 ft.
- Seat Height: Seat height refers to the vertical distance from the ground or floor to the seating surface. It affects the comfort and sightlines for spectators, as well as the overall ergonomics of the seating arrangement. The seat height of my stadium is set to 2ft.
- Seat Width: Seat width determines the individual space allocated to each spectator. It influences comfort, especially for longer events. The seat width of my stadium is set to 3ft.
- Aisle Width: Aisle width is the space allocated for walkways between rows of seats. It is important for facilitating easy movement, crowd management, and accessibility. Adequate aisle width ensures a smooth flow of spectators throughout the stadium. The aisle width of my stadium is set to 2ft.
- Ticket Price at Bottom Level per Seat: This refers to the price of a ticket for the best seats or premium areas in the stadium. The ticket price at the lowest level is set to be $500/seat.
- Ticket Price at Top Level per Seat: This refers to the price of a ticket for the least expensive seats or general admission areas in the stadium. The ticket price at the lowest level is set to be $50/seat.
- Construction Cost Per Seat: Construction cost per seat refers to the cost of building a seat. I assume the cost of a seat for my stadium is $20/seat.
- Number of Seats: This refers to the total seating capacity of the stadium, which directly impacts the potential number of spectators that can attend events. To calculate the number of seats, I divide the length of each seating zone by the width of each seat per person and then sum up the values for all the zones. This evaluator allows me to determine the total number of seats that can be accommodated in the stadium. It is an important design variable that influences the scale and size of the stadium.
- Average Distance to Focal Point: The focal point typically refers to the center of the playing field or stage where the main action takes place. It’s calculated by averaging the view lines that connect the focal points and the seat-eye level points. This design variable focuses on optimizing the average distance between seats and the focal point, ensuring better visibility and spectator experience for attendees.
- Potential Ticket Sale Net Income: This variable relates to the revenue potential of the stadium through ticket sales. To estimate the potential ticket sale net income, I make the assumption of a linear decrease in ticket prices from $500 per seat at the bottom level to $50 per seat at the top level. Furthermore, I assume a constant construction cost of $20 per seat across all levels.
- Obstructed Views Ratio: This refers to the proportion of seats in the stadium that have obstructed or limited views. Minimizing the obstructed views ratio is essential for providing a satisfactory viewing experience for spectators, ensuring that the majority of seats have clear sightlines to the playing field.
Interpretation: This section will explain more in Step 3.
Step 3 - Generative Design Study Results
In the generative study, I have chosen the following variables and goals. My objective is to minimize the average distance between each seat and the focal point, as well as reduce the obstructed view ratio. Additionally, I aim to maximize both the number of seats available and the potential net income from ticket sales.
Here is the Parallel Coordinates Graph of my four inputs and outputs:
Tradeoff 1: Ticket Sales vs. Sightline Quality
This tradeoff revolves around maximizing ticket sales while ensuring that spectators have optimal views of the event on the field or stage. The obstruction views ratio refers to the percentage of spectators having obstructed views of the action from their seating locations. Increasing ticket sales often means adding more seating, and increasing the stadium's height. However, these changes can impact the sightlines for some spectators. Certain seats may have restricted views due to pillars or the angle at which they are positioned relative to the field.
The scatter plot shows this tradeoff. The y-axis is the potential ticket sale net income and the x-axis is the obstructed view ratio. The size of the plot points is the average distance to the focal point and the points' color correlates to the total number of seats.
Through the scatter plot, the first observation is that there is a position relationship between the obstructed view ratio and the potential ticket sale net income. As the potential ticket sale net income increases, the constructed view ratio tends to increase.
Tradeoff 2: Ticket Sales vs. Spectator Comfort:
This tradeoff refers to the balance between maximizing ticket sales and ensuring a comfortable experience for the spectators. Stadiums generate revenue primarily through ticket sales, so it's crucial to maximize the number of seats available for purchase. However, increasing the seating capacity may lead to a compromise in terms of spectator comfort. For example, to accommodate more seats, the stadium might have to reduce the seat width per seat, resulting in cramped seating arrangements.
Below is a scatter plot of this tradeoff that was modeled. The y-axis is the potential ticket sale net income and the x-axis is the seat width per person. The size of the plot points is the obstruction views ratio and the points' color correlates to the total number of seats.
Additionally, a noteworthy observation is that when the seat width per person exceeds 1.3ft, there is a substantial decrease in ticket sales net income. In light of this, opting for a seat width of 1.2ft would be advantageous as it not only maintains a relatively high potential ticket sale net income but also provides additional space for spectators, ensuring their comfort.
Taking all of these two tradeoffs into consideration, I choose a specific design on the two scatter plots that strike a balance across all four factors I have studied. This design exhibits moderate levels of ticket sale profit, seat width per person, obstructed views ratio, and average distance to the focal point.
It aligns with the overall design goal for the stadium, which aims to provide a high-quality experience for spectators, ensuring their comfort and satisfaction. At the same time, it seeks to optimize ticket sale net income by maximizing seating capacity while maintaining a balance between profitability and spectator well-being. Therefore, I believe this design is the most suitable choice. The specific details of this design are shown below: