Module 4 - Conceptual Design - Building Context & Passive Design
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Module 4 - Conceptual Design - Building Context & Passive Design

Journal Entry For
Module 4 - Conceptual Design - Building Context & Passive Design
  1. Concept Mass Options : Mixed-Use, Tall Building (20 stories, 15’ floor heights, 300’ total building height)

Aesthetic, eye catching, continuous, hexagonal surface, building mass concepts with varying arc floor corners radii, all round clear views, a potential for natural ventilation, rain collection and a near-even distribution of daylighting around the building.

The square footage at the mid-floors is proportionally reduce by 20% .

Option 1 (29,820 sq. ft per floor) - One Conceptual Mass, Floors 11 and the roof are rotated at 45 degrees while floors 12 - 20 rotation varies between 0 and 45 degrees.

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Option 2 (31,254 sq. ft per floor) - Two joined masses, only the roof floor is rotated at 45 degrees while floors 12 - 20 rotation varies between 0 and 45 degrees.

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  1. Location Site: Waikiki Beach Hawaii - An urban oceanside park with an all round comfortable climate, rain, open and mountain views.

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  1. Psychometric Chart (Honolulu, HI)

Best Set of Design Strategies:

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  1. Energy Analysis

Option 1:

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Option 2:

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  1. Solar Analysis

Option 1

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Option 2

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  1. Summary & Conclusion:
  • Option 1 has an average floor area of 29,820 sq. ft compared to Option 2 with 31,254 sq. ft (+5%). The project brief range is 30,000 - 35,000 sq. ft.
  • Per the insight analysis, Option 1 has a benchmark predicted EUI of 32.6 kBtu/sq. ft/yr and an energy cost of $3.16 sq. ft/yr while Option 2 has a benchmark EUI of 32.9 kBtu/sq. ft/yr and an energy cost of $3.19 sq. ft/yr. EUI and energy cost values are about the same at 1% variance. Energy Analysis:
Predicted EUI
Option 1
Option 2
Variance
EUI (kBtu/sq. ft/yr)
32.6
32.9
0.9%
Energy Cost
$3.16
$3.19
0.9%
  • Both Option 1 and 2 have cast sunlight shadows on the western and northern sides. Solar Analysis:
Solar Analysis
Option 1
Option 2
Variance
PV Energy Production Savings
$919,335.00
$1,193,751.00
+29.8%
PV Panel Area (sq. m)
40,012
63,552
+58.8%
PV Payback (yrs)
18.2
15.0
-17.6%
  • Green Building Studio Base Building performance analysis:
Performance Analysis
Option 1
Option 2
Variance
Annual Energy Cost
$3,002,508.00
$3,144,109.00
+4.7%
Lifecycle Cost
$40,894,152.00
$42,822,764.00
+4.7%
Water Usage Cost/yr
$68,898.00
$72,201.00
+4.8%
Photovoltaic Analysis Payback (yrs)
11
11
0
  • PV Panel Efficiency EUI Passive Design Reductions:
PV Panel Efficiency
Option 1
Option 2
Variance
16.0%
-2.93
-2.83
-3.4%
18.6%
-3.40
-3.29
-3.2%
20.4%
-3.73
-3.60
-3.5%
  • Option 1 could achieve a -0.01 EUI reduction with 45 and 90 degrees building mass orientations while there will be no further EUI impact to Option 2 mass orientation.
  • Option 1 - The conceptual mass north and west surfaces receive the least sun, while the roof, south and eastern sides building surfaces receive the most sun.
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  • Option 2 - The conceptual mass top-half north and west surfaces receive the least sun, while the roof, south and east sides building surfaces receive the most sun.
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  • Aesthetics - Option 1 has smoother, continuous exterior curved corners while the Option 2 exterior surface corners break at mid-mass to a varying rotation of up to 45 degrees at the roof.

Preferred Building Form Conceptual Mass: Option 1
Aesthetics - eye catching smoother, continuous exterior curved corners
A marginal lower predicted EUI and energy cost
About 5% lower annual energy, water usage and life-cycle costs
Option 1 Trade-offs:
  • A lower floor area of about -5% (Explore increasing the floor area in final design)
  • A lower PV energy production savings of about -30%
  • A lower PV panel area of about -60%
  • A lower PV payback of about 18 years (-18%)

The most important Whole Building Energy Analysis design strategies to achieve 20 - 30% EUI reductions or Architecture 2030 and Net Zero thresholds:
  1. Plug load efficiency
  2. Operating Schedule
  3. Lighting Efficiency
  4. HVAC System
  5. PV Panel Efficiency
  6. PV Surface Coverage